DE sign:
(Deconstructing in-order to find new meanings)

A blogging space about my personal interests; was made during training in Stockholm #Young Leaders Visitors Program #Ylvp08 it developed into a social bookmarking blog.

I studied #Architecture; interested in #Design #Art #Education #Urban Design #Digital-media #social-media #Inhabited-Environments #Contemporary-Cultures #experimentation #networking #sustainability & more =)

Please Enjoy, feedback recommended.

p.s. sharing is usually out of interest not Blind praise.
This is neither sacred nor political.

Sunday, November 2

CSBE Book Lists on #Architecture II

This is a Followup post, kindly check

All is Copied of CSBE http://csbe.org/activities/favorite-book-lists-on-architecture-and-the-built-environment/

Favorite Book Lists on Architecture and the Built Environment

Rami Farouk Daher
CEO: TURATH: Architecture & Urban Design Consultants
Amman, Jordan
I read this book at a later stage in my academic and professional life, specifically in 2001 while spending a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley. I even read it twice as I did not understand much of it the first time around. This book not only introduced me to the concept of “discourse,” but also helped me understand how ‘ideas’ are formed and how they are related to practices of power, which is conceived beyond the over-simplistic binary structural separation of ‘empowered’ and ‘dominator’ on the one hand, and ‘marginalized’ and ‘dominated’ on the other. I was able to project many concepts I have learnt from this book onto real-life situations through projects I have worked on relating to building, architecture, and place transformations.  This book, together with other writings by Foucault, triggered me to reveal, qualify, and grant voice to disguised and subjugated ‘local’ realities and knowledge.
I have developed an interest over the years in the epistemologies of knowledge. This book on the phenomenology of architecture introduced me to notions of place, and to an understanding of a higher order and of a different nature of such notions. Norberg-Schulz, who was influenced by Martin Heidegger, helped me arrive at a phenomenological understanding of place beyond its physical qualities and even beyond a ‘romantic’ and over-simplified relationship between place and the individual.  The meaning of place accordingly reveals itself to you based on the nature of your level of engagement and understanding.  Again, and as is the case with the first book in this list, a second reading of this book - and especially after reading Heidegger as well - revealed ‘hidden’ concepts that were not clear to me the first time around I read it, and helped me arrive at a different level of understanding of place.
This remarkable narrative on Modern architecture presented to me architectural, technical, and territorial transformation that took place in Europe and the United States during the past three centuries. Embedded in social theory and political economy, I consider this book a fundamental reference to the understanding of Modernity as a cultural movement of change and transformation that also affected the rest of the world - including our Arab World - towards the end of the first half of the twentieth century.  
I find Edward Said a fascinating personality, and his book Orientalism an eye opener. It is true that he borrowed many concepts, and specifically the relationship between the production of knowledge and the exercise of power, from Michel Foucault, but he brilliantly projected these concepts on theOrient to be conceived as discourse and discussed how the West ‘appropriated,’ talked about, described, and inscribed the Orient during the past two centuries. The details of such a process are so fascinating. Even today, many local Arab institutions and individuals unfortunately still perpetuate such concepts in their practices in many fields related to cultural production, architecture, education, and tourism, to mention a few.
I have developed over the past twenty years or so an interest in public space, not only in terms of understanding its processes of production, but also its design and occupation. This fascinating book, which concentrates on contemporary trends in the design of open and public space, addresses the challenge of delineating and building a new identify as well as searching for a new meaning for this transient and continually-transforming category: open and public space. The book looks at space beyond the binary division of ‘building’ and ‘landscape,’ and rather investigates landscape urbanism through emerging ‘surfaces,’ ‘verticals,’ ‘enclosures,’ ‘shelters,’ and ‘events.’

November 2, 2014

Han Tumertekin
Principal and Founder, Mimarlar Tasarim Danismanlik LtdIstanbul, Turkey

Editor's note: Han Tumertekin's list is different from previous lists we have published so far in that he chose to present his books through a narrative that is defined by the challenges he faced as a student joining Istanbul Technical University in 1976, when Turkey was undergoing intense political turbulences.

When I was admitted to Istanbul Technical University (ITU) in 1976, an informal civil war was going on in Turkey. Each day, nearly twenty people were killed due to the conflict between rightists and leftists. This troubling period lasted until the army’s intervention in 1980. In this kind of an environment, it was unavoidable that education would be hampered, especially at ITU, which was a leftist university. One positive outcome of those difficult years – during which many paid a serious price, both socially and personally - was that we had a good amount of time to read. Naturally, the majority of the books read and the arguments discussed were political. The discussions were very intense and everything was open to discussion. This condition also applied to architectural education. My education was supposed to begin with a period where reading was as important as drawing, but due to boycotts, the start date of the term was delayed from September to May. I used the incredible amount of free time I had to read books that my brother picked for me. That is how I started to read about architecture.
One of the first books I read during that period was Bruno Zevi’s Apprendre A Voir L’Architecture(1948; translated into English under the title of Architecture as Space: How to Look at Architecture). I suppose that my unexpectedly easy understanding of the concept of “space” comes from two drawings in Zevi’s book that consisted of plans of Saint Peter’s Cathedral in Rome placed side by side. In one plan, he marked the walls and columns to attract attention to the void. In the other, he marked the void instead. Through this comparison, I understood that the “void” is not what remains after one removes the walls and columns, but that it actually has a body and a mass itself. Zevi presented an amazing way to make the void visible.
During that same period, I also read Sigfried Giedion’s Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition (1941). The book was about how modern architecture emerged through industrial developments, and how it is still developing through various dynamics. For instance, the invention of the elevator and the development of structural steel enabled the building of skyscrapers. These kinds of relationships made me understand that architecture cannot only be handled in a formal world that merely involves the manipulation of forms, spaces, and surfaces.
Following that, I read Auguste Choisy’s Histoire De L’Architecture (1899), which chose drawings of some structures that also showed their building processes. I was so impressed by the book’s bird’s-eye and worm’s-eye sectional axonometrics that showed both spaces and supports. It is a technique that I still use when sketching. These drawings made me realize that we always need to think about the entire components of the space together with the plan.
I also read the French translation of Robert Venturi’s Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture(1966; De L’Ambiguite En Architecture). It is an important book as it warns the mind, which is busy creating spaces, about the use of these spaces. I remember being impressed with the way Venturi refers to the normal behaviors of everyday life to discuss space. I realized through reading this book that architecture is not about building structures; it is more about designing spaces, which allow us to live in an organized fashion. I remember how enlightened I felt after reading how staircases not only work as circulation systems, but also as spaces as one may sit on their steps and have a chat.
October 1, 2014

Emre Arolat
Founding Partner, EAA - Emre Arolat Architects
Istanbul, Turkey

Without any doubt, this classic work, which has been republished numerous times, is one of the most influential sources on modern architectural thought. Sigfried Giedion (1888 – 1968) was an important historian and a significant actor in the Modern Movement. He was the first secretary-general of the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM) in 1928, and had very close contacts with the pioneers of Modern Architecture. All this makes this book very enticing.
A Pattern Language, which is the second in a three-book series that Alexander wrote, had a very assuasive effect on me during my university studies. I remember the comfort and confidence I felt when I finished reading this book as I was struggling with other cumbersome texts. As a very rough summary, I can describe it as a long text that uses several scales, different ranges, and various instruments to scan the whole architectural field and build a perceptible working document about designing and constructing the various elements of the built environment.
“La Tendenza” was the pioneering international architectural movement that came out of Italy in the post-war period. As a practicing architect, Rossi was the leader of this movement, but he also was an influential theorist. The Architecture of the City is his major written work and is a critique of the Modern Movement that focuses on cities and emphasizes the collective memory and the public realm. I remember how as a university student I had a lot of difficulty reading this book in French. I found it boring and confusing. A few years later, I tried to read it in English, but still found it boring, and I realized that the problem was not with the language in which I read it. Just like his buildings, Rossi’s writings are important and deserve to be considered very carefully, but they are not easy to live with. Despite that, this book is one of my all-time favorites, as is the case with most of Rossi’s buildings.
Some say that Lynch’s The Image of the City is as important as Camillo Sitte’s The Art of Building Cities. Others find it too formalistic. It is one of my favorite writings about large-scale design theory. This easy to follow book discusses environmental images in our urban lives by mostly analyzing the central areas of three American cities: Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles, and by focusing on the evaluation of city form. In addition to the readability of whole text, its images, maps and other graphics are extremely clear and informative.
I find this book by far the most useful and impressive source about early modern Turkish Architecture. Architectural historian Sibel Bozdogan expresses the cultural history of a very critical period in the evolution of modern Turkey, which begins with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution and extends until 1950, when Kemal Ataturk’s Republican People’s Party was first voted out of power. The text is very valuable not only because of the information it provides us about the architectural approaches of this era, but also because it sheds light on the complex relationship that took place between modernity and nationalism in Turkey.
This work by Juhani Pallasmaa is a significant criticism of the domination of sight over the other four senses in architectural culture and design. The book is a revelation for its readers, and it provides new and fresh insights regarding architectural culture.
This collection of writings includes essays by more than forty important historians, critics, and architects, including Christopher Alexander, Alan Colquhoun, B. V. Doshi, Kenneth Frampton, Sigfried Giedion, Le Corbusier, Richard Neutra, Suha Ozkan, Juhani Pallasmaa, and James Stirling. The book provides a very useful exploration of the concept of regionalist thinking in architecture, which is extremely important today as the notion and sense of “place” is being rapidly crushed and blurred under the influence of global neo-liberalism.
September 7, 2014

Nora Akawi
Curator, Studio X, Amman LabColumbian University Middle East Research Center, Columbia Global Centers
Amman, Jordan
This volume was my first encounter, as a first-year architecture student, with architectural theory. The texts included here provided me with the tools to begin exploring the relationship between architecture and politics.
This book was recommended to me by my advisor, Professor Felicity Scott, as I was working on my thesis focusing on the political role of the archive in imagining alternative political and spatial organization. This book, which culminated from a symposium held at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg in 1998, made it impossible to think about the politics of the archive in Palestine without studying the South African experience. This might, at first glance, seem irrelevant to the built environment, unless we understand the city as the surface of inscription of events and cultures. The process of selecting of the narratives which are to take part in the official archive of a place or a state (whether through the preservation of places, documents, or oral histories), and consequently the erasure (destruction) of those rendered invisible, directly shapes our built environment.
Illustrating the impossibility of democracy without conflict, Jacques Rancière offers the tools to explore and experiment with visual representations of the multiplicity of (conflicting) narratives existing within a territory, and of the stages where those left "unselected" from the official archive (see above) are given space to perform.
I only regret getting to this book as late as I did. I wish I would have had it accompany me from the first day I began my journey as an architecture student.
Orhan Pamuk, The Museum of Innocence, 2008
Since this list is meant to contain books rather than film, this one stands for fiction and the city. Whether through films or novels, I want to stress the importance of the narrative and the experiential in portraying or imagining a place and exploring the political, economic, and social forces that shape it.

August 4, 2014

Wednesday, October 1

60 years of Science For Peace (at) CERN

Sixty Years For PEACE through Science 
& Science though Peace


CERN turns 60 and celebrates peaceful collaboration for science

Geneva, 29 September 2014. Today, CERN1, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is blowing out 60 candles at an event attended by official delegations from 35 countries. Founded in 1954, CERN is today the largest particle physics laboratory in the world and a prime example of international collaboration, bringing together scientists of almost 100 nationalities.
CERN’s origins can be traced back to the late 1940s. In the aftermath of the Second World War, a small group of visionary scientists and public administrators, on both sides of the Atlantic, identified fundamental research as a potential vehicle to rebuild the continent and to foster peace in a troubled region. It was from these ideas that CERN was born on 29 September 1954, with a dual mandate to provide excellent science, and to bring nations together. This blueprint for collaboration has worked remarkably well over the years and expanded to all the continents.
“For six decades, CERN has been a place where people can work together, regardless of their culture and nationality. We form a bridge between cultures by speaking a single universal language and that language is science,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “Indeed, science is an essential part of culture. Maestro Ashkenazy, conducting the European Union Youth Orchestra here today puts it most eloquently in saying that while music reflects the reality of our spiritual life and tries to convey to us the essence of our existence, science’s mission is extremely similar; it also tries to explain the world to us.”
CERN came into being on 29 September 1954 when its convention, agreed by 12 founding Member States, came into force. Over the years and with its continuing success, CERN has attracted new countries and become a truly global organization, Today it has 21 Member States and more than 10 000 users from all over the world, and more countries have applied for membership.
“Over time, CERN has become the world’s leading laboratory in particle physics, always oriented towards, and achieving, excellence,” said President of CERN Council Agnieszka Zalewska.
CERN’s business is fundamental physics, aiming to find out what the Universe is made of and how it works. Since 1954, the landscape of fundamental physics has dramatically changed. Then, knowledge of matter at the smallest scales was limited to the nucleus of the atom. In 60 years, particle physicists have advanced knowledge of forces and matter at the smallest scales, developed a sound theory based on this knowledge - the Standard model - and improved the understanding of the Universe and its beginnings.
Over the years, physicists working at CERN have contributed to this progress as a series of larger and ever more powerful accelerators have allowed researchers to explore new frontiers of energy. Among the many results achieved, some discoveries have dramatically improved comprehension of the fundamental laws of nature and pushed forward technologies. These include the discovery of the particle carriers of the weak force, rewarded with a Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984, the invention of the world wide web by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, the development of a revolutionary particle detector by Georges Charpak, rewarded by a Nobel Prize in 1992, and the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, proving the existence of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism, which led to a Nobel Prize for Peter Higgs and François Englert in 2013.
Today CERN operates the world’s leading particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider. With the restart of the LHC next year at new record energy, CERN will continue to seek answers to some of the most fundamental questions about the universe.

Material available:

- Pictures will be available here
Video News Release
- Video "CERN and Science for peace" (CERN's history)
English / French
- Video "CERN and the rise of the Standard Model" (CERN's contributions to Physics research)
English / French
- Video "Knowledge and technology: from CERN to society" (Applications of CERN's research)
English / French
- For more historical material (pictures/footage), see here
- New CERN 4K ultra HD footage is also available here
CERN turns 60, celebrates peaceful collaboration for science
Today, CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is blowing out 60 candles at an event attended by official delegations from 35 countries. Founded in 1954, CERN is today the largest particle physics laboratory in the world and a prime example of international collaboration, bringing together scientists of almost 100 nationalities.

CERN’s origins can be traced back to the late 1940s. In the aftermath of the Second World War, a small group of visionary scientists and public administrators, on both sides of the Atlantic, identified fundamental research as a potential vehicle to rebuild the continent and to foster peace in a troubled region. It was from these ideas that CERN was born on 29 September 1954, with a dual mandate to provide excellent science, and to bring nations together. This blueprint for collaboration has worked remarkably well over the years and expanded to all the continents.
“For six decades, CERN has been a place where people can work together, regardless of their culture and nationality. We form a bridge between cultures by speaking a single universal language and that language is science,” said CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. “Indeed, science is an essential part of culture. Maestro Ashkenazy, conducting the European Union Youth Orchestra here today puts it most eloquently in saying that while music reflects the reality of our spiritual life and tries to convey to us the essence of our existence, science’s mission is extremely similar; it also tries to explain the world to us.”
rest found at http://cern60.web.cern.ch/en/content/cern-turns-60-celebrates-peaceful-collaboration-science

Celebrating the first of a kind
This joint opinion piece was written by Agnieszka Zalewska, President of CERN Council, and Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.
It was on 7 and 8 October 1954 that the first meeting of the CERN Council took place, opened by Frenchman Robert Valeur, retiring Chairman of the interim Council that had overseen the establishment of CERN. On the day we celebrate that first meeting with a special Council Symposium, it’s interesting to look back at the meeting’s minutes. 
Penned in the dry official language that is the hallmark of such documents, the momentous nature of what had been achieved nevertheless shines through. “The retiring Chairman stressed the importance of the creation of the Organization which would be the first scientific organization of its kind in the world,” Valeur was reported as saying, before going on to introduce such luminaries as Swiss writer and federalist, Denis de Rougemont, and American Nobel Prize winner, Isidor Rabi, who had both played instrumental roles in the creation of CERN. CERN pioneer Pierre Auger would only be present the following day, reported Valeur, while Louis de Broglie, whose 1949 submission to the European Cultural Conference started it all, was unable to attend.
In words that set the tone for transatlantic relations in particle physics, Rabi “stressed the great interest of American scientists in the work of the Laboratory and offered, on their behalf, the most cordial and complete cooperation. This, he hoped, would lead to a fair competition between Europe and America for the benefit of science”. Opening formalities aside, the meeting very rapidly got down to business, with elections of officials, financial and staffing matters, and detailed discussions about the suitability of the local geology for the construction of the proton synchrotron.
What made the origins of CERN so remarkable, and continues to make CERN remarkable today, is the extraordinary resonance between visionary scientists, diplomats and government representatives, all recognising science as a vehicle for peace. The names cited in the minutes of the first Council meeting include scientists and non-scientists. Today’s Council continues in that tradition, being composed of representatives of our Member States’ governments and scientific communities. It is this that makes our governance model so robust, our scientific record so proud, and it is what makes that first meeting of the Council so worthy of celebration today as we approach the International Day of Peace this weekend.
Sixty years after CERN’s creation, there is still much conflict and intolerance in the world. In such a climate, institutions like CERN, islands of peace and stability, are more necessary than ever. New ones, such as SESAME, should be encouraged, while those that exist should be nurtured. This is the message that we hope endures from CERN’s 60th anniversary year.




Sunday, September 7

Free Ways to Learn about #Architecture

Learning doesn't necessarily need to be formal – or expensive for that matter. Thanks to the Internet and some generous benefactors, you can further your education for free from the comfort of your own home. Top schools such as MIT and Harvard University are affiliated with free online learning resources, allowing people from all over the globe to connect and audit courses at their own pace. In some cases, these services even provide self-educators with proof for having completed courses. Keep reading after the break to check out our round-up of four free online learning resources.
In 2003, MIT officially launched OpenCourseWare – an online platform through which absolutely anyone can access the same course content as paying students – for free. The architecture section boasts over 100 undergraduate and graduate level courses, complete with downloadable lecture notes, assignments, reading lists, and in many cases, examples of past student work. Even though you won’t receive feedback from professors or certification for completing coursework, having free access to the oldest architecture department in the United States’ teachings is nevertheless an amazing resource. Below are two of the MIT OpenCourseWare architecture courses, described.
  • Architectural Construction and Computation is for students interested in how computers can facilitate design and construction. The course begins with a pre-prepared computer model, which is used for testing and investigating the construction process. The construction process is explored in terms of detail design and structural design, taking legal and computational issues into consideration.
  • Theory of City Form is one of the handful of architecture courses offered in audio and video format through MIT OpenCourseWare. The title is pretty self-explanatory – the course presents students with historical and modern theories of city form along with appropriate case studies, helping them build an understanding of urbanism and architecture for future educational and professional pursuits.
Just like MIT, TU Delft also has an OpenCourseWare platform – albeit less extensive. Even though the website does not have a designated architecture section, designers can still make use out of the prestigious school’s science and technical offerings. Available material for the majority of courses includes audio and video lecture recordings, readings, assignments, and practice exams.
  • Bio Inspired Design ”gives an overview of non-conventional mechanical approaches in nature and shows how this knowledge can lead to more creativity in mechanical design and to better solutions than with conventional technology. It discusses a large number of biological organisms with smart constructions, unusual mechanisms or clever sensing and processing methods and presents a number of technical examples and designs of bio-inspired instruments and machines.”
  • Wastewater Treatment looks at the development of wastewater treatment technologies and their application. “High-tech and low-tech systems, which are applicable in both industrialized and developing countries, are discussed.” Specific examination topics include technologies for nutrient removal and recovery, such as anaerobic treatment systems and membrane filtration techniques.
EdX, a non-profit online initiative founded by MIT and Harvard University, offers free interactive classes from some of the world’s top schools. If you decide to take a course, you can try for a certificate of achievement – or you can simply audit it, choosing what and how much you want to do. It’s up to you. A huge benefit is being able to connect with like-minded classmates all over the world using the website’s peer-to-peer social learning tools. In addition to categories like computer science, music, and economics, they have a dedicated architecture section. Two of their architecture courses, described below, are currently open to fall registration.
  • The Search for Vernacular Architecture of Asia ”is a comprehensive, dialogue-based course providing an in-depth exploration of the vernacular concept and its applications to the culture and built environments of the past, present, and future. Designed to promote discussion and dialogue while contributing to the discourse surrounding the concept of the vernacular, this five-week course will challenge the perception of tradition and stimulate a deeper analysis of one’s local environment.” As suggested in the title, the course will focus specifically on the vernacular in Asia.
  • “While the development of cities in different parts of the world is moving in diverse directions, all estimations show that cities worldwide will change and grow strongly in the coming years” – especially in the tropics, where “it is expected that the number of new urban residents will increase by 3 times the population of Europe today.” With a specific focus on Asia, Future Cities will explore design and management methods over the course of nine weeks to increase the sustainable performance of cities and therefore, their resiliency.
Open Online Academy, a platform similar to Edx, offers a more selective range of courses relating specifically to architecture, art, and design. Dr. Ivan Shumkov, the website’s founder and one of its educators, is a New York based architect, curator, and professor. He has taught at Harvard GSD, the Pratt Institute‘s School of Architecture, and Parsons The New School for Design – just to name a few. So far, Open Online Academy offers six courses, two of which are described below. Be sure to keep an eye out for when the platform expands in the fall to offer additional courses concerning leadership, negotiation, and management.
  • Contemporary Architecture analyzes “major contemporary architectural ideas, ideologies, and projects in the context of both globalization and specific local contexts” over an 8-week period. Students will study material from the 1990s onwards, submitting weekly assignments and sitting in on virtual classes and tours. After 27,000 people from across the globe participated in the course’s first iteration, it is being offered again starting June 30, 2014.
  • Designing Resilient Schools is taught by Shumkov, Arnold Rivera, and Illac Diaz, the man behind the Liter of Light project in the Phillippines, which won the Curry Stone Design Prize in 2012. The 8-week course focuses on designing resilient schools for the victims of Typhoon Haiyan, which hit the Phillippines on November 9th, 2013. At the end of the course, which is essentially an online version of a collaborative design studio, an international jury will select the best proposals for future implementation. The next iteration of the course starts on September 1, 2014.
The remaining four courses and their start dates are:
Whelan, Jennifer. "Four Ways to Learn About Architecture for Free" 16 Jun 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 26 Aug 2014.

25Free Publications to read on Architecture

Original Article can be found at

If you don’t have access to an architecture library (and even if you do), sifting through shelves can take hours. Buying books can be even more painful — for your wallet, at least. Instead, why not browse this list of 25 books that are all free and easily accessible online? Some are well-known classics of architecture literature, but we hope you find a few surprises as well.

By Vitruvius Pollio
Quite simply, one of the most influential architecture books of all time.

2. Seven Lamps of Architecture (1889)
John Ruskin was an exceptionally talented painter, philosopher and art critic in Victorian England. The Seven Lamps of Architecture, including “Sacrifice,” “Truth” and “Beauty,” is well worth uncovering — not just for the philosophical lessons but also for Ruskin’s amazing illustrations.

3. The Stones of Venice (1851)
By John Ruskin
The Stones of Venice is Ruskin’s sequel to The Seven Lamps of Architecture. If you have been or want to go to Venice, this book provides comprehensive studies and sketches of the city.

4. A History of Architecture on The Comparative Method (1905)
By Banister Fletcher
English architect Banister Fletcher and his father (Banister Fletcher Sr.) penned this book comparing the architecture of various countries, trying to find the origins of their particular styles. Particularly interesting are the sketches of uncommon periods, such as Prehistoric architecture.

5. Japan : Its Architecture, Art, And Art Manufactures (1882)
By Christopher Dresser
Considered the first industrial designer, Christopher Dresser studied the craft of Japanese design. Dresser includes his elegant Japanese influenced sketches and drawings.

6. Le Corbusier: Elements of a Synthesis (1968)
By Stanislaus von Moos
Elements of a Synthesis is a precise and systematic dissection of ’s life and work.

7. The Architectonic Colour: Polychromy in the Purist Architecture of Le Corbusier (2011)
By Jan De Heer
This book dissects and examines Le Corbusier’s relationship with Purist Painting.

8. Design and Analysis (1997)
By Bernard Leupen, Christoph Grafe, Nicola Kornig, Mark Lampe and Peter de Zeeuw
Written by a team of professors at TU Delft who advocate for “design analysis” – a way of fusing research and education for the advancement of design practices.

9. Surrealism and Architecture (2005)
Edited by Thomas Mical
Thomas Mical attempts to show the significant connection between surrealist painting and architecture.

10. The Architecture of the City (1892)
By Aldo RossiPritzker winner Aldo Rossi’s take on urban planning’s impact on the construction of the city. His urban theories were considered groundbreaking at the time this book was published.

11. Louis Sullivan As He Lived: The Shaping Of American Architecture (1960)
By Willard Connely
Willard Connelly’s biography of the influential Louis Sullivan, mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright and the man who made Chicago the steel city it is today.

12. Technics and Civilization (1934)
By Lewis Mumford – 1934
Lewis Mumford was a prominent writer, critical regionalist and opponent to suburbanization. In Technics and Civilization, he takes an analytical look at how the machine has impacted civilization throughout history.

13. Sticks and Stones (1926)
By Lewis Mumford
Lewis Mumford on American building and architecture, from vernacular to the early 19thcentury.

14. De Re Aedificatoria (1443)
By Leon Battista Alberti
Also known as On The Art Of BuildingDe Re Aedificatoria was the first book on Architecture printed during the Renaissance. It is considered by many to be as important an example of early architectural writing as Vitruvius’ Ten Books.

15. Eric Mendelsohn (1940)
By Arnold Whittick
The biography of Eric Mendelsohn, the architect known for his simple yet powerful sketches. An influential art deco architect, Mendelsohn escaped Nazi Germany, finding success abroad.

16. A History Of Architecture (1918)
By Fiske Kimball
Fiske Kimball, who worked on the preservation of Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, wrote this chronological history of Architecture from before the Renaissance. An interesting take on architecture as seen through the eyes of a preservationist rather than an architect.

17. Architecture And Furniture (1938)
By The Museum Of Modern Art
These essays highlight Alvar Aalto’s designs in architecture and furniture. Originally published as a companion to a furniture and design exhibition at the MoMA in 1938, the highlight is Aalto’s early use of new and innovative wood products.

18. The Lesson Of Japanese Architecture (1936)
By Jiro Harada
With plenty of accompanying graphics, this gives an overarching perspective on Japanese Architecture from pre-Buddhist Japan until the 1930’s.

19. Four Walking Tours Of Modern Architecture In New York City (1961)
By Ada Louise HuxtableHuxtable was the first architecture critic at The New York Times and a Pulitzer Prize winner. This, one of Huxtable’s lesser known works, still has relevance to this day (even if a few of the buildings have had name changes).

20. Architecture: Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries (1958)
By Henry Russell Hitchock
A book devoted to materials and their influence on 19th and 20th century architecture.

21. Built In USA: Post-War Architecture (1949)
By Henry Russell Hitchcock and Arthur Drexler
Photos, plans and sections of the works of mid-century modern masters, including Alvar Aalto, Mies van der Rohe and others.

22. Modern California Houses; Case Study Houses 1945-1962 (1962)
By Esther McCoy
Designed by architects such as Richard Neutra and Pierre Koenig, these houses defined west-coast architectural theory at the time.

23. White Pillars (1941)
By J. Frazer Smith
Rural American architecture tends to be passed over, so White Pillars, whichcovers the vernacular/plantation architecture of the Mississippi Valley, is a refreshing read.

24. Modern Church Architecture (1962)
By Albert Christ-Janer and Mary Mix Foley
The 20th century churches and religious buildings included here represent a paradigm shift from traditional religious architecture.

25. Thomas Jefferson Architect and Builder (1873)
By I.T. Frary
A critical look at Thomas Jefferson as an architect, including the many (architectural) mistakes he made throughout his career. A particularly intriguing section is a long history of the constant rebuilding and redesign of Monticello.

Cite:Galloway, Andrew. "25 Free Architecture Books You Can Read Online" 18 Aug 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 06 Sep 2014.